Several studies have been conducted on the fretting fatigue limit characteristics of Inconel alloy tube material used in steam generators of nuclear power plants. Nevertheless, additional research on fretting fatigue crack initiation and propagation behavior is necessary in order to evaluate its fretting fatigue life more accurately. In this study, crack growth tests of fretting fatigue are conducted, and the characteristics of fatigue crack initiation and propagation are analyzed on Inconel 690 alloy. Also, plain fatigue crack growth tests are performed on the same material, and the results are compared with those of fretting fatigue crack growth tests. From both of the plain and fretting fatigue crack growth test results, the ΔK-da/dN diagrams are obtained and the crack growth rates are compared. It is found that the crack growth rate for fretting fatigue tests is faster than that for plain fatigue tests under a certain value of DK. However, over this value of DK, the crack growth rate for fretting fatigue tests becomes slower than that for plain fatigue tests due to debris which is produced by fretting and trapped in the propagated cracks. Finally, the fracture surfaces examined by an optical microscope, and the initiation angles of the oblique cracks are determined under various applied stresses. Also, the microstructure of the fracture surfaces is observed by a Scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Han-Kyu Jeung is currently a Ph.D. candidate in the Dept. of Mech. Eng. at Yeungnam University, Korea. His research interests include the fields of fretting fatigue and fatigue crack behavior characteristics.
Pyongyang blames the breakdown primarily on U.S. efforts to crack down on what Washington says are illicit North Korean financial transactions. Pyongyang argues that these efforts represent the latest attempt by the Bush administration to undermine the Kim Jong Il regime and extract concessions in the six-party talks. Further talks, North Korea says, will only serve as a diplomatic fig leaf until the Bush administration commits itself to serious negotiations.
This is a brief sketch of the death penalty, terms of imprisonment, fines, sentencing guidelines,forfeitures, civil penalties and other sanctions associated with the proscriptions of the federalControlled Substances Act and related statutes. The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) assignsvarious plants, drugs and chemicals to one of five schedules and authorizes the Attorney General toadd or reassign substances to the schedules according to the risks they represented and medicalbenefits they provided. Those who wish to manufacture, distribute or dispense controlledsubstances must be registered with the Attorney General. The Attorney General is authorized toregulate registrants' business in controlled substances including establishing production quotas forschedule I and II controlled substances.Within this basic scheme, the CSA and its offspring attack substance abuse and commerce insubstance abuse at four levels: the unlawful possession, production, or distribution of drugs, andlaundering of the proceeds the illicit traffic generates. A few CSA violations are capital offenses,but most carry heavy fines and long terms of imprisonment instead. Within the maximums andminimums established by Congress, the federal sentencing guidelines determine the sentences metedout as punishment for most federal crimes. The guidelines system is essentially a scorecard system.Forfeiture is a particularly prevalent feature of the federal anti-drug law enforcement efforts. Illicitcontrolled substances, the proceeds from drug trafficking, any property that can be traced to suchproceeds, and any property used to facilitate drug trafficking can be confiscated under federalforfeiture laws. Civil penalties, the loss of federal benefits, injunctions and revocation of probationmay also attend controlled substance offenses.It includes a chart of the penalties for crimes involving: heroin; cocaine; crack, PCP; LSD,marihuana (marijuana); amphetamine; methamphetamine; listed (precursor) chemicals;paraphernalia; date rape drugs, rave drugs; designer drugs; ecstasy; drug kingpins; as well as theother substances including narcotics and opiates assigned to Schedule I, Schedule II, Schedule III,Schedule IV, and Schedule V of the Controlled Substances Act and the Controlled SubstancesImport and Export Act (Title II and Title III of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act);drug trafficking; illicit drug import and export; recalcitrant drug smugglers; maritime drug lawenforcement; environmental damage from illegal manufacturing; booby traps on federal lands;regulatory offenses; communications-related offenses; simple possession; attempt and conspiracy;drug dealing at truck stops; continuing criminal enterprises (CCE); investment of illicit drug profits;distribution to infants, minors, children, juveniles, and those under 18 years of age; distribution topregnant women, trafficking in school zones; racketeering (RICO); Travel Act; armed careercriminals); three strikes; money laundering; currency transaction reporting (smurfing); financialtransactions with designated foreign narcotics traffickers; and sundry tax offenses.
As problems came to light, the company once valued at US$9 billion fell apart amid regulatory crackdowns and shareholder lawsuits. The collapse of the startup and the indictment of Holmes, a Stanford University dropout who became a celebrity Silicon Valley entrepreneur, spawned books, a documentary and a television series. Holmes was convicted of defrauding investors in January, while a jury found Balwani guilty in July.